LEAPChem Provides L-Serine (56-45-1) Now!
Nov. 2020/4/14 10:41:31 By LEAP Chem
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Basic Information of L-Serine
Chemical Name: L-Serine
Cas No.: 56-45-1
Molecular Formula: C3H7NO3
Serine (symbol Ser or S) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins. It contains an α-amino group (which is in the protonated ?NH+ 3 form under biological conditions), a carboxyl group (which is in the deprotonated –COO? form in physiological conditions), and a side chain consisting of a hydroxymethyl group (see hydroxyl), classifying it as a polar amino acid. It can be synthesized in the human body under normal physiological circumstances, making it a nonessential amino acid. It is encoded by the codons UCU, UCC, UCA, UCG, AGU and AGC.
Serine is important in metabolism in that it participates in the biosynthesis of purines and pyrimidines. It is the precursor to several amino acids including glycine and cysteine, as well as tryptophan in bacteria. It is also the precursor to numerous other metabolites, including sphingolipids and folate, which is the principal donor of one-carbon fragments in biosynthesis.
Serine plays an important role in the catalytic function of many enzymes. It has been shown to occur in the active sites of chymotrypsin, trypsin, and many other enzymes. The so-called nerve gases and many substances used in insecticides have been shown to act by combining with a residue of serine in the active site of acetylcholine esterase, inhibiting the enzyme completely.
D-Serine, synthesized in neurons by serine racemase from L-serine (its enantiomer), serves as a neuromodulator by coactivating NMDA receptors, making them able to open if they then also bind glutamate. D-serine is a potent agonist at the glycine site (NR1) of the NMDA-type glutamate receptor (NMDAR). For the receptor to open, glutamate and either glycine or D-serine must bind to it; in addition a pore blocker must not be bound (e.g. Mg2+ or Zn2+). In fact, D-serine is a more potent agonist at the glycine site on the NMDAR than glycine itself.
D-serine was thought to exist only in bacteria until relatively recently; it was the second D amino acid discovered to naturally exist in humans, present as a signaling molecule in the brain, soon after the discovery of D-aspartate. Had D amino acids been discovered in humans sooner, the glycine site on the NMDA receptor might instead be named the D-serine site. Apart from central nervous system, D-serine plays a signaling role in peripheral tissues and organs such as cartilage, kidney and corpus cavernosum.
L-Serine is sweet with minor umami and sour tastes at high concentration.
Pure D-serine is an off-white crystalline powder with a very faint musty aroma. D-Serine is sweet with an additional minor sour taste at medium and high concentrations.
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